Illustrated Mining Terms


Radioactive - the emission of radiant energy
Raise - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, vertical or near-vertical opening driven upward form a level to connect with the level above, or to explore the ground for a limited distance above one level.

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Raise bore machine - A machine using rotary heads of tungsten carbide bits to drill large diameter holes.

Charger QX sealed friction bearing bits available from 9.875'' thru 16'' diameter.

Ramp - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, driven to connect levels, usually driven in a downward direction, and used for haulage.
Reclamation – The restoration of land and environmental values to a surface mine site after the coal is extracted. Reclamation operations are usually underway as soon as the coal has been removed from a mine site. The process includes restoring the land to its approximate original appearance by restoring topsoil and planting native grasses and ground covers. Picture of a wastewater reclaimation plant
Recovery - The proportion or percentage of coal or ore mined from the original seam or deposit.  
Regulator - Device (wall, door) used to control the volume of air in an air split.  
Reserve – That portion of the identified coal resource that can be economically mined at the time of determination. The reserve is derived by applying a recovery factor to that component of the identified coal resource designated as the reserve base.  
Resin bolting - A method of permanent roof support in which steel rods are grouted with resin.  
Resources – Concentrations of ore in such forms that economic extraction is currently or may become feasible. Ore resources broken down by identified and undiscovered resources. Identified coal resources are classified as demonstrated and inferred. Demonstrated resources are further broken down as measured and indicated. Undiscovered resources are broken down as hypothetical and speculative.  
Respirable dust - Dust particles 5 microns or less in size.  
Respirable dust sample - A sample collected with an approved dust sampler unit attached to a miner, or so positioned as to measure the concentration of respirable dust to which the miner is exposed, and operated continuously over an entire work shift of such miner.  
Retreat mining - A system of robbing pillars in which the robbing line, or line through the faces of the pillars being extracted, retreats from the boundary toward the shaft or mine mouth.  
Return - The air or ventilation that has passed through all the working faces of a split.  
Return idler - The idler or roller underneath the cover or cover plates on which the conveyor belt rides after the load which it was carrying has been dumped at the head section and starts the return trip toward the foot section.  
Rib - The side of a pillar or the wall of an entry. The solid coal on the side of any underground passage. Same as rib pillar.  
Rider - A thin seam of coal overlying a thicker one.  
Riffle - grooves, channels, slats, or wire screens in a sluice box.  
Ripper - A coal extraction machine that works by tearing the coal from the face.  
Roasting - The treatment of ore by heat and air, or oxygen-rich air, in order to remove sulphur and arsenic.  
Rob - To extract pillars of coal previously left for support.  
Robbed out area - Describes that part of a mine from which the pillars have been removed.  
Rockbolting - The act of consolidating roof strata by means of anchoring and tensioning steel bolts in holes especially drilled for the purpose.  
Rock burst - The sudden failure of walls or pillars in a mine caused by the weight or pressure of the surrounding rock, and is accompanied by a violent release of energy.  
Rod mill - A rotating cylindrical mill which employs steel rods as a grinding medium.  
Roll - (1) A high place in the bottom or a low place in the top of a mine passage, (2) a local thickening of roof or floor strata, causing thinning of a coal seam.  
Roll protection - A framework, safety canopy, or similar protection for the operator when equipment overturns.  
Roof - The stratum of rock or other material above a coal seam; the overhead surface of a coal working place. Same as "back" or "top."  
Roof bolt - A long steel bolt driven into the roof of underground excavations to support the roof, preventing and limiting the extent of roof falls. The unit consists of the bolt (up to 4 feet long), steel plate, expansion shell, and pal nut. The use of roof bolts eliminates the need for timbering by fastening together, or "laminating," several weaker layers of roof strata to build a "beam."  
Roof fall - A coal mine cave-in especially in permanent areas such as entries.  
Roof jack - A screw- or pump-type hydraulic extension post made of steel and used as temporary roof support.  
Roof sag - The sinking, bending, or curving of the roof, especially in the middle, from weight or pressure.  
Roof stress - Unbalanced internal forces in the roof or sides, created when coal is extracted.  
Roof support – Posts, jacks, roof bolts and beams used to support the rock overlying a coal seam in an underground mine. A good roof support plan is part of mine safety and coal extraction.  
Roof trusses - A combination of steel rods anchored into the roof to create zones of compression and tension forces and provide better support for weak roof and roof over wide areas.  
Room and pillar mining – A method of underground mining in which approximately half of the coal is left in place to support the roof of the active mining area. Large "pillars" are left while "rooms" of coal are extracted.  
Room neck - The short passage from the entry into a room.  
Round - Planned pattern of drill holes fired in sequence in tunneling, shaft sinking, or stopping. First the cut holes are fired, followed by relief, lifter, and rib holes.  
Royalty - The payment of a certain stipulated sum on the mineral produced.  
Rubbing surface - The total area (top, bottom, and sides) of an airway.  
Run-of-mine - Raw material as it exists in the mine; average grade or quality.  

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