Illustrated Mining Terms


Gallery - A horizontal or a nearly horizontal underground passage, either natural or artificial.

Gasification – Any of various processes by which coal is turned into low, medium, or high Btu gases.  
Gathering conveyor; gathering belt - Any conveyor which is used to gather coal from other conveyors and deliver it either into mine cars or onto another conveyor. The term is frequently used with belt conveyors placed in entries where a number of room conveyors deliver coal onto the belt.  
Geologist - One who studies the constitution, structure, and history of the earth's crust, conducting research into the formation and dissolution of rock layers, analyzing fossil and mineral content of layers, and endeavoring to fix historical sequence of development by relating characteristics to known geological influences (historical geology).

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Geology - a science dealing with the formation of the earth and ore deposits.  
Gob - The term applied to that part of the mine from which the coal has been removed and the space more or less filled up with waste. Also, the loose waste in a mine. Also called goaf.
Global climate change – This term usually refers to the gradual warming of the earth caused by the greenhouse effect. Many scientists believe this is the result of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and methane, although there is no agreement among the scientific community on this controversial issue.  
Grade - the value of an ore  
Grain - In petrology, that factor of the texture of a rock composed of distinct particles or crystals which depends upon their absolute size.
Grizzly - Course screening or scalping device that prevents oversized bulk material form entering a material transfer system; constructed of rails, bars, beams, etc. Grizzly Feeder
Ground control - The regulation and final arresting of the closure of the walls of a mined area. The term generally refers to measures taken to prevent roof falls or coal bursts.

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Ground pressure - The pressure to which a rock formation is subjected by the weight of the superimposed rock and rock material or by diastrophic forces created by movements in the rocks forming the earth's crust. Such pressures may be great enough to cause rocks having a low compressional strength to deform and be squeezed into and close a borehole or other underground opening not adequately strengthened by an artificial support, such as casing or timber.  
Grout - a filling agent inserted by pressure into loose and broken rock or ground  
Gunite - A cement applied by spraying to the roof and sides of a mine passage.

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